Cultured mammalian cells / General staining
1Mitochondria stained with lead citrate in wet cells
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Fully hydrated HeLa cells were fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde for 30 min and stained with 1% Venables lead-citrate for 4 min. This image shows mitochondria (~300nm in width).

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2Wet Bovine sperm cells stained with osmium tetroxide
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Fully hydrated Bovine sperm cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 min and stained with 1% osmium tetroxide.

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3Wet CHO cells stained with uranyl acetate
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Fully hydrated CHO cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 min and stained with 1% uranyl acetate.
Left: Lower magnification shows the overall staining pattern with uranyl acetate.
Right: Structure of cell-cell contacts between neighboring cells at higher magnification.

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4Chromosomes stained with gold chloride
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Cells grown in the QX-102 capsule were fixed with 2% Paraformaldehyde/1% Glutaraldehyde/PBS for 30 min. The cells were stained with 0.1% gold chloride for 20 min and imaged in QX-102 Imaging Buffer. Left: NIH-3T3 cells, Right: CHO cells.

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5Macrophages
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Macrophages (IC21) grown in QX-102 capsules were fixed and stained with uranyl acetate. Higher magnification image (right) shows ruffled borders of membranes. In collaboration with Prof. Paul Matsudaira (Head of MIT bio-imaging).

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6Cells stained with osmium tetroxide
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Cells were grown in the QX-102 capsule, fixed (2% Paraformaldehyde/1% Glutaraldehyde/PBS) and stained with osmium tetroxide.
Left: NIH-3T3 cells
Right: Hela cells. Lipid droplets in the cytoplasm are seen as bright small spheres.

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7Mitochondria in HeLa Cells
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Mitochondria visualization in HeLa cells that were fixed in Glutaraldehyde and stained with 2% Phosphotungstic acid. Mitochondria are easily identified while their pleomorphic forms and structural variations are clearly seen.

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8Actin stress fibers of C2C12 cells
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C2C12 cells were stained with 2% Phosphotungstic Acid. The stain provides a very good contrast of the stress fibers in low magnifications, and a lot of details at high magnifications

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9Human blood cells
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Left: Human blood plasma containing different types of cells.
Middle: Polymorphonuclear human white blood cells. After separation, cells were plated on the QX-102 capsule membrane. Efficient attachment and spreading of the population of interest were achieved. Fixation and consequent Uranyl Acetate and Osmium Tetroxide staining enhanced visualization of cellular organelles, and highlighted the lipid bodies inside the cytoplasm. These lipid bodies are known to be accumulated in circumstances such as inflammation.
Right: Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) were plated on a poly-l-lysine coated QX-102 capsule membrane using a centrifuge at 3000 rpm for five minutes. Cells were then fixed with 0.2% Glutaraldehyde and stained with 0.5% Osmium Tetroxide for 30 min.

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10Rat whole blood
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Blood cells were attached to a poly-L-lysine coated QX-102 capsule membrane and fixed with 0.2% Glutaraldehyde. Cells were stained with 0.5% osmium tetroxide for 30 min.

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